The dissociation of personality starts out as a dissociation from reality, which fails to make a strong enough claim on the individual thereby leaving her free to disengage that surplus energy somewhere else in unconscious acts, reveries, and hallucinations. Anna developed a. Studies in Hysteria was symptomatic of an important shift in the conceptualization of pathology: since consciousness, understood in terms of attention, functioned mostly as a mechanism inhibiting the normally diffused, involuntary, and multiple self, inattention, involuntariness and automatism could no longer be construed as pathological.
By the time Ribot published The Psychology of Attention the old hierarchy of conscious and unconscious, attention and inattention, recognition and amnesia, had been reversed. Attention is the momentary inhibition, to the exclusive benefit of a single state, of this perpetual progression: it is a monoideism.
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Various cases reported at the end of the century demonstrated the difference between spontaneous and artificial somnambulism. These studies reinforced the already established tendency to conceptualize consciousness and memory in terms of attention. The cataleptic girl became somnambulist whenever she engaged in some form of activity requiring absolute attention: her somnambulism was the result not of a memory dysfunction but of an imbalance of attention.
Bergson made use of that metaphor when he compared the brain to a frame and the mind to a picture:. The frame determines something of the picture, by eliminating beforehand all which has not the same shape and size. Provided the comparatively simple actions — gestures, attitudes, movements — in which a complex mental state would be materialized, are such as the brain is ready for, the mental state will insert itself exactly into the cerebral state. But there are a multitude of different pictures which would fit the frame equally well; consequently the brain does not determine thought and, at least to a large extent, thought is independent of the brain.
It is now time to consider the three ways in which photography and film contributed to the transition from physiognomic to psychological theories of insanity that I traced above. If self-consciousness is a product of imitation, early cinema made this self-objectification manifest. In Dr. Hugh W. Diamond pioneered the use of photographic portraits in the study and treatment of the insane. The photographs made patients aware of their illness, sometimes provoking a degree of self-consciousness that allowed them to objectify their condition as a sort of performance from which they could distance themselves instead of being trapped by it.
Although patients had no choice but to pose, since the technology available at the time depended on long exposure times, Diamond remained convinced that the use of professional models did not undermine the evidential value of photography. In her unpublished study Frames of Mind: An Investigation into the History of the Photography of Psychiatric Patients  Kamilla Porter draws attention to one particular photograph of a woman suffering from melancholy:.
On the basis of her examination of the casebooks of photographs by Hering at Bethlem c.
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Clarke at Wakefield c. Porter wonders whether the very development of photography might have contributed to the decline of physiognomic interpretations of insanity. Londe emphasized the reproduction capacity of photography, which made possible a taxonomy of madness since different types of madness could be recognized only through comparisons across patients and across time. He derived the persistence or recurrence of the visual signs in which madness manifested itself — which he read as essential or inherent precisely because of its recurrence — from the reproducibility of reproductions photographs.
For E. The possibility of taking multiple records of the insane over a period of time in order to study the effect of various treatments and to perform other kinds of comparative analysis rendered the idea of an essentially unified and static self obsolete. Similarly, he demonstrated that unlike organic amnesia, which involved the irreversible loss of memories, patients suffering from dynamic amnesia were capable of recovering their lost memories. Charcot went on to argue that, like dynamic amnesia and dynamic paralysis, hysteria was the result of suggestion and could therefore be cured in the same way, by suggestion.
Is there a relationship between ways that movement was staged in early cinema and corporeal pathologies — contractures, tics, catalepsy, and convulsive movement — related to hysteria and epilepsy?
The presence of the photographic camera destabilized the ontology of the mental state of which it sought to provide ocular proof. If ocular demonstration and record were essential to the continued study of madness and mental illness, then the camera was called upon to keep producing and reproducing the object of study madness : to demonstrate the cure meant to provide the illness first. Even as the camera claimed to be the most objective and technologically advanced method of studying insanity, its sheer presence challenged the reality of the object it was supposed to represent objectively.
Two years later Albert Dad, the first person whose dissociative fugues were studied in detail, was photographed in his three states normal, hypnotized and during a fugue. And yet, as early as Dr. The camera introduced an element of theatricality or insincerity that would eventually permeate the larger intellectual climate of modernity and play a central role in the birth of existentialism with its emphasis on the inherent inauthenticity or theatricality of the self Sartre.
In The Emergence of Cinematic Time: Modernity, Contingency, the Archive  Mary Ann Doane identifies the tension between contingency and rationalization the rationalization of time and space  as central to modernity, and to film. In the scene Cavell analyzes Mr. Deeds delivers a speech, in which he argues that involuntary gestures and actions are a form of thinking too, though they do not conform to the common idea of thinking as a purely intellectual act:.
Ulanov, Ann and Barry. Einsiedeln, Switzerland: Daimon, Boston, MA: Shambala, Wilmette, IL: Chiron Publications, Einsiedeln, Switzerland: Daimon Verlag, Imprint Academic, Exeter, The Pauli-Jung Correspondence. Princeton University Press, January, Analytical Psychology 51 1 , pp.
Analytical Psychology 46 2 , pp. Arione de Winter Lady of the Beasts. New York: Amazon, Madness and Creativity.
The Spirit in Jung. Spiritual Aspects of Clinical Work. Almost any film with Eastwood in a starring role reveals such a stoic flat expression — which makes his late-in-life helming of American Sniper all the more noteworthy. The hero most definitely is in the cross hairs. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.
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