General philosophy discussions. If you are not sure where to place your thread, please post it here. Share favorite quotes, discuss philosophers, and other topics. Understanding Wittgenstein. I need some help understanding Wittgenstein. What is he trying to say? I understand that he is trying to express that language is an inferior way of explaining philosophical concepts, but it is most of his logic and relations to ethics that confuse me. Any help would be much appreciated!!!
Thank you all, Monte. My understanding of Wittgenstein is that he believed language constrained our thoughts. Since any interpretation of his work involves an interpretation of language better you read and draw your own conclusions. Anyone else might read the words in a different manner. That, in a nutshell, is probably as solid a critique of post modernism as you will find. Wittgenstein said ethics was a matter which we could not sensibly speak.
That statement looks outrageous since people do in fact talk about ethical issues all the time, often to good purpose. So, what did he mean by that? Early in his career, he says ethics is like aesthetics and religion, it cannot be spoken about, it can only be shown. He wrote, "Ethics, if it is anything, is supernatural and our words will only express facts" Lecture on Ethics Wittgenstein is telling us that ethics cannot be put into words.click here
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He remained silent about ethics, not because he sees ethics as unnecessary, but because he feels any talk about it can only cheapen it. According to him, ethics is not a body of knowledge, nor is it a set of maxims that we can live by. Ethics represents a general outlook on life, and because we can make no general claims about the nature of the world, we can say nothing about ethics.
Ethics, in effect, makes itself manifest in the way that we deal with the world. In this sense, we could say, our ethical outlook defines the world we inhabit. Thus, for Wittgenstein, ethics is of supreme importance, but for precisely this reason, it cannot be put into words. Thank you, thank you thank you all!! His stuff is a bit of a stiff read, but 'm starting to make it a little more malleable now.
Thanks again!! I've always paired any talk of Wittgenstein with his proposition that 'there are no genuine philosophical problems, and that philosophy is just a byproduct of misunderstanding language. I just found that hard to believe and thought it to be something of a cheap argument.
I do however, semi-understand the thought process behind it. Ethics in the form of ideas will always lose substance through the passage of translation, especially when trying to relate two completely different cultures through this 'universal human condition. June wedding moments. Return to Buffalo Creek. Territory Days in Old Colorado City. MeadowGrass Music Festival Organize your elements to make better pictures. Road Trip: Moab.
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All Slideshows. Contact Colorado Springs Independent S. Perhaps the most significant of these is an initiation ritual, through which somebody joins the Craft and becomes a Wiccan. In British Traditional Wiccan BTW traditions, there is a line of initiatory descent that goes back to Gerald Gardner , and from him is said to go back to the New Forest coven ; however, the existence of this coven remains unproven. In BTW, initiation only accepts someone into the first degree. To proceed to the second degree, an initiate has to go through another ceremony, in which they name and describe the uses of the ritual tools and implements.
It is also at this ceremony that they are given their craft name. By holding the rank of second degree, a BTW is considered capable of initiating others into the Craft, or founding their own semi-autonomous covens. The third degree is the highest in BTW, and it involves the participation of the Great Rite , either actual or symbolically, and in some cases ritual flagellation , which is a rite often dispensed with due to its sado-masochistic overtones.
By holding this rank, an initiate is considered capable of forming covens that are entirely autonomous of their parent coven. According to new-age religious scholar James R. Lewis , in his book Witchcraft today: She then becomes eligible to wear the "moon crown".
The sequence of high priestess and queens traced back to Gerald Gardner is known as a lineage, and every orthodox Gardnerian High Priestess has a set of "lineage papers" proving the authenticity of her status. This three-tier degree system following initiation is largely unique to BTW, and traditions heavily based upon it.
The Cochranian tradition , which is not BTW, but based upon the teachings of Robert Cochrane , does not have the three degrees of initiation, merely having the stages of novice and initiate. Some solitary Wiccans also perform self-initiation rituals, to dedicate themselves to becoming a Wiccan. The first of these to be published was in Paul Huson 's Mastering Witchcraft , and unusually involved recitation of the Lord's Prayer backwards as a symbol of defiance against the historical Witch Hunt.
Handfasting is another celebration held by Wiccans, and is the commonly used term for their weddings.
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Some Wiccans observe the practice of a trial marriage for a year and a day, which some traditions hold should be contracted on the Sabbat of Lughnasadh, as this was the traditional time for trial, " Telltown marriages" among the Irish. A common marriage vow in Wicca is "for as long as love lasts" instead of the traditional Christian "till death do us part". Infants in Wiccan families may be involved in a ritual called a Wiccaning , which is analogous to a Christening.
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The purpose of this is to present the infant to the God and Goddess for protection. Parents are advised to "give [their] children the gift of Wicca" in a manner suitable to their age. In accordance with the importance put on free will in Wicca, the child is not expected or required to adhere to Wicca or other forms of paganism should they not wish to do so when they reach adulthood.
In Wicca, there is no set sacred text such as the Christian Bible , Jewish Tanakh , Hindu Gita or Islamic Quran , although there are certain scriptures and texts that various traditions hold to be important and influence their beliefs and practices. Gerald Gardner used a book containing many different texts in his covens, known as the Book of Shadows among other names , which he would frequently add to and adapt. In his Book of Shadows, there are texts taken from various sources, including Charles Godfrey Leland 's Aradia, or the Gospel of the Witches and the works of 19th—20th century occultist Aleister Crowley , whom Gardner knew personally.
Also in the Book are examples of poetry largely composed by Gardner and his High Priestess Doreen Valiente , the most notable of which is the Charge of the Goddess. Gerald Gardner to his followers . Similar in use to the grimoires of ceremonial magicians ,  the Book contained instructions for how to perform rituals and spells, as well as religious poetry and chants like Eko Eko Azarak to use in those rituals. Gardner's original intention was that every copy of the Book would be different, because a student would copy from their initiators, but changing things which they felt to be personally ineffective, however amongst many Gardnerian Witches today, particularly in the United States , all copies of the Book are kept identical to the version that the High Priestess Monique Wilson copied from Gardner, with nothing being altered.
In the s through to the s, when the Wiccan movement was largely confined to lineaged groups such as Gardnerian Wicca and Alexandrian Wicca , a "tradition" usually implied the transfer of a lineage by initiation. However, with the rise of more and more such groups, often being founded by those with no previous initiatory lineage, the term came to be a synonym for a religious denomination within Wicca.
There are many such traditions   and there are also many solitary practitioners who do not align themselves with any particular lineage, working alone. There are also covens that have formed but who do not follow any particular tradition, instead choosing their influences and practices eclectically. Those traditions which trace a line of initiatory descent back to Gerald Gardner include Gardnerian Wicca , Alexandrian Wicca and the Algard tradition; because of their joint history, they are often referred to as British Traditional Wicca , particularly in North America.
Other traditions trace their origins to different figures, even if their beliefs and practices have been influenced to a greater or lesser extent by Gardner. These include Cochrane's Craft and the Tradition , both of which trace their origins to Robert Cochrane ; Feri , which traces itself back to Victor Anderson and Gwydion Pendderwen ; and Dianic Wicca , whose followers often trace their influences back to Zsuzsanna Budapest.
Some of these groups prefer to refer to themselves as Witches , thereby distinguishing themselves from the BTW traditions, who more typically use the term Wiccan see Etymology. Many traditions, including those of British Traditional Wicca, require formal initiation within an established coven for membership of their respective traditions. In this manner, all BTW's can trace a direct line of descent all the way back to Gardner.
Other traditions, however, do not hold this to be necessary. Wicca has also been "customized" to the various different national contexts into which it has been introduced; for instance, in Ireland, the veneration of ancient Irish deities has been incorporated into Wicca. Lineaged Wicca is organised into covens of initiated priests and priestesses. Covens are autonomous, and are generally headed by a High Priest and a High Priestess working in partnership, being a couple who have each been through their first, second and third degrees of initiation.
Occasionally the leaders of a coven are only second-degree initiates, in which case they come under the rule of the parent coven. Initiation and training of new priesthood is most often performed within a coven environment, but this is not a necessity, and a few initiated Wiccans are unaffiliated with any coven. A commonly quoted Wiccan tradition holds that the ideal number of members for a coven is thirteen , though this is not held as a hard-and-fast rule.
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