Religious organizations of lay people members of the church who are not clergy , sometimes organized by profession or guild, who undertook charitable roles and duties like that of tending the dying or condemned. Italian painter, sculptor, architect, designer, theorist, engineer and scientist. He was the founding father of what is called the High Renaissance style and exercised an enormous influence on contemporary and later artists. His writings on art helped establish the ideals of representation and expression that were to dominate European academies for the next years.
The standards he set in figure draughtsmanship, handling of space, depiction of light and shade, representation of landscape, evocation of character and techniques of narrative radically transformed the range of art. A number of his inventions in architecture and in various fields of decoration entered the general currency of 16th-century design. Although he brought relatively few works to completion, and even fewer have survived, Leonardo was responsible for some of the most influential images in the history of art. A place between heaven and hell, where reside the souls of unbaptized infants and Old Testament saints who lived and died before the coming of Christ.
The concept is no longer an accepted part of Catholic theology. In —3 he took over the workshop, and by — he occupied an important position in Florentine art life. He is known primarily for his devotional paintings, although he was also much in demand as a portrait painter and was a sensitive draughtsman. He had a long and often prosperous career as a painter, and, although he travelled widely, his style retained a close affinity with the paintings of his native Venice.
He was one of an outstanding generation of painters, including Giorgione, Titian, Palma Vecchio and Pordenone, who appeared in Venice and the Veneto during the first decade of the 16th century. In comparison with his contemporaries, Lotto was a fairly traditional painter in that he worked primarily in the long-established genres of altarpieces, devotional pictures and portraiture.
Such paintings were popular in the Venetian provinces and the Marches where Lotto spent much of his career and where he often received more money for his commissions than he could obtain in Venice. At a very young age he distinguished himself as a condottiere in the service of the papacy, and from the s he was involved in many of the important military engagements on the Italian peninsula. His fortunes began to wane, however, when in he deserted Alfonso I, King of Naples and Sicily reg — This desertion, his subsequent hostilities toward the Montefeltro and Sforza families, and his disregard in of peace terms proposed by Pope Pius II severely tarnished his reputation and heralded the eventual decline of his political and military fortunes.
Although he continued to provide his services as a condottiere, fighting for Venice against the Turks —5 , his enemies had managed to reduce his base of power to Rimini alone by the time of his death. Son of Frederick III. Through his marriage and those of his children and grandchildren, he contributed substantially to the territorial aggrandisement of the Habsburgs in the Netherlands, Spain and eastern Europe. His patronage tended largely to the glorification of the dynasty, notably in portraiture and in the large statues of his family and ancestors he commissioned for his tomb in Innsbruck.
His autobiographical literary works reflect his medieval courtly ideals and were illustrated by major contemporary artists. He was also probably the greatest patron of armourers in the late 15th century. He was not a liberal patron and commissioned little, his patronage guided purely by political motives. In Alessandro was appointed Duke of Florence; emphasizing his absolute power, he had the council bell removed from the Palazzo della Signoria and reduced to coins and weapons. He was the greatest private patron of his time, who, motivated through ambition for his family, and perhaps through a desire to expiate the sin of usury, introduced a new conception of patronage; a humanist, he fully appreciated the propaganda value of architecture and sculpture, and his ambitions rivalled those of the Comune.
He dominated Florence from ; yet he himself valued his burgher status and constantly emphasized it, and the artistic tradition associated with him is simple and restrained.
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His mother, Maria Salviati d , was a granddaughter of Lorenzo the Magnificent; his father, the professional soldier Giovanni delle Bande Nere — , was killed when Cosimo was seven. Initially his power was limited, but he became Duke of Florence in , after his victory at the Battle of Montemurlo, and Grand Duke of Tuscany in Cosimo, more powerful than any earlier Medici, strove to create a court whose splendour should rival the proudest European courts and to express the triumphs and ambitions of his dynasty through the architectural magnificence of his palazzi and public works.
He cultivated the myth of the great tradition of Medici art patronage, restoring the plundered Palazzo Medici, and reassembling and enriching the Biblioteca Laurenziana, founded by Cosimo il vecchio. Humanists and poets, such as Vincenzo Borghini, and artists, such as Agnolo Bronzino, Benvenuto Cellini, Pierino da Vinci and Giorgio Vasari, gathered around him and enhanced his glory and power.
In he established the Arazzeria Medicea, and he was joint head, with Michelangelo, of the Accademia del Disegno. His education included instruction in science and the decorative arts, and these were to remain his abiding interests. Bronzino painted a portrait of Eleonora with Francesco —50; workshop versions, Pisa, Mus. Matteo; Cincinnati, OH, A. A distinguished vernacular poet, he was also passionately interested in Classical antiquity and became the centre of a humanist circle of poets, artists and philosophers, which included Marsilio Ficino, Pico della Mirandola, Angelo Poliziano, Botticelli, Bertoldo di Giovanni and Michelangelo.
His taste in architecture was formed by Leon Battista Alberti, with whom he had studied antiques in Rome in and whose treatise he read repeatedly. He showed great interest in the architectural projects of his day; this has stimulated a debate on whether he may have been an amateur architect. His artistic tastes were apparently stimulated less by the aesthetic ideals of Republican Florence, however, than by those manifested in such north Italian centres of patronage as Ferrara and Venice, where the Medici lived in exile in —4.
Piero watched over family interests at the Council of Ferrara —9 and responded positively to the style of Este court patronage, which he may have sought to emulate with the wealth of the Medici bank behind him in the decorations he commissioned for the new Palazzo Medici in Florence. His aesthetic preferences may be deduced from such commissions, which contrast with the large-scale ecclesiastical projects that his father sponsored: typically they show precise, often minute detailing as in a bust of Piero by Mino da Fiesole , brilliant and resonating colour and rich surface finish.
He was the illegitimate son of Guidantonio da Montefeltro, Count of Urbino reg — In his youth he spent two years at the Gonzaga court in Mantua, attended the humanist school of Vittorino da Feltre and served as a condottiere from He became Count of Urbino after the assassination of his half-brother, Oddantonio reg —4. In he served the Sforzas of Milan and was later employed by Florence and Naples He was infrequently engaged after the peace of Lodi , although various city-states retained the promise of his service. He fought for the papacy against Florence in Roman poet.
His work is an important source for mythological subjects in Western visual art. He studied in Rome and held minor judicial posts there before becoming a poet. For two decades he was the leading poet in Rome, but in AD 8, for unknown reasons, the Emperor Augustus banished him to Tomis on the Black Sea, where he remained. The principal works of his maturity are the Metamorphoses , stories from mythology related in a historical frame, and the Fasti , a poetical treatise on the Roman calendar.
Term used to refer specifically to the rivalry of the arts of painting and sculpture. Polemical comparisons of the arts are widely documented in 16th-century sources, yet a comprehensive work on the subject has never been attempted. Italian medallist, architect, painter and illuminator. He came from a good Veronese family his father was a doctor, two of his brothers were in the church and three others were merchants. Despite a licentious past, which had produced at least four illegitimate children, he worked devotedly and with the skill of a consummate politician to repair the devastations of the Sack of Rome and to overcome problems caused by the Reformation.
He was active in Perugia, Florence and Rome in the late 15th century and early 16th. Although he is now known mainly as the teacher of Raphael, he made a significant contribution to the development of painting from the style of the early Renaissance to the High Renaissance.
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The compositional model he introduced, combining the Florentine figural style with an Umbrian use of structure and space, was taken up by Raphael and became widely influential throughout Europe. He was the central figure of Italian literary culture in the midth century. He often acted as an ambassador and orator on state occasions. His work largely initiated the transition from the fragmentary humanism of the late Middle Ages to the more systematic classicism of the Renaissance.
His observations on art were sporadic and usually marginal, but they are crucially important for the understanding of the development of a critical vocabulary for art, and for revealing the way in which an appreciation of the visual arts began to be absorbed into the concerns of literary humanism. He was the leading painter in midth-century Florence and one of the most original and extraordinary of Mannerist artists. His eccentric personality, solitary and slow working habits and capricious attitude towards his patrons are described by Vasari; his own diary, which covers the years —6, further reveals a character with neurotic and secretive aspects.
Pontormo enjoyed the protection of the Medici family throughout his career but, unlike Agnolo Bronzino and Giorgio Vasari, did not become court painter. His subjective portrait style did not lend itself to the state portrait. He produced few mythological works and after devoted himself almost exclusively to religious subjects. His drawings, mainly figure studies in red and black chalk, are among the highest expressions of the great Florentine tradition of draughtsmanship; close to survive, forming arguably the most important body of drawings by a Mannerist painter. Painter and illuminator, half-brother of Cristoforo de Predis.
About the Maker
He began his career as an illuminator, working with Cristoforo. From he artist worked in the Milanese mint, together with his brother Bernardino. The portrait was ordered by her future husband, through Frederick III, Duke of Saxony, to give him an idea of her appearance.
Italian painter, draughtsman and architect. He has always been acknowledged as one of the greatest European artists. With Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo and Titian, he was one of the most famous painters working in Italy in the period from to , often identified as the High Renaissance, and in this period he was perhaps the most important figure.
In he moved to Rome, where he decorated in fresco the Stanze of the papal apartments in the Vatican Palace—perhaps his most celebrated works—as well as executing smaller paintings in oil including portraits and a series of major altarpieces, some of which were sent from Rome to other centres. In Rome, Raphael came to run a large workshop.
He also diversified, working as an architect and designer of prints. Italian family of sculptors and potters. They were active in Florence from the early 15th century and elsewhere in Italy and France well into the 16th. Family members were traditionally employed in the textile industry, and their name derives from rubia tinctorum , a red dye. Luca della Robbia founded the family sculpture workshop in Florence and was regarded by contemporaries as a leading artistic innovator, comparable to Donatello and Masaccio.
He is credited with the invention of the tin-glazed terracotta sculpture for which the family became well known. His nephew Andrea della Robbia, who inherited the workshop, tended to use more complex compositions and polychrome glazing rather than the simple blue-and-white schemes favoured by his uncle. He was, together with Cosimo Tura and Francesco del Cossa, one of the most important painters working in Ferrara and Bologna in the 15th century.
Although many of his works have been destroyed, those that survive show that he raised the depiction of human emotion and narrative drama to remarkable heights. Sculptor, brother of Bernardo Rossellino.
Cavallini to Veronese - Italian Renaissance Art
He belonged to the same generation as Desiderio da Settignano and Mino da Fiesole; his development more closely parallels theirs than it does that of his brother, and his style is softer and more fluid. Yet it should be assumed that Antonio received his formal training from his brother, and there are clearly similarities in their work, especially from the s. Italian friar, preacher and writer.
His grandfather was the famous author and physician Michele Savonarola c. In Savonarola left Ferrara and entered the Dominican monastery of S Domenico, Bologna, where he studied theology until He returned to Ferrara in to preach at the convent of the Angeli and made visits to Florence between and In he was transferred, at the request of Lorenzo the Magnificent, to S Marco in Florence and was made a prior there in As early as he had composed a canzone entitled De ruina mundi , berating the corruption of the world, a theme to which he often returned.
He was the son of the condottiere Muzio Attendolo and established himself as one of the most important military figures in 15th-century Italy. His sponsorship of the arts was primarily directed towards religious and civic building projects. During the first ten years of his rule his patronage was dominated by the need to reconstruct and restore major Visconti fortresses, particularly the Castello Sforzesco, Milan, which had been destroyed during the Ambrosian Republic.
Francesco also took up the traditional ducal sponsorship of the building of Milan Cathedral and the Certosa di Pavia. He emphasized his Visconti descent through his mother by supporting such traditional Milanese projects as the construction of Milan Cathedral and the Certosa di Pavia.
His greatest contributions, however, concerned the building of a new residence within the Castello Sforzesco in Milan and the redecoration of the Castello in Pavia. In , several years after the death of his brother Galeazzo Maria Sforza in , he succeeded in gaining control of the regency but did not become duke in name until his nephew Gian Galeazzo Sforza died in His commissions, both public and private, were divided between Lombard and Tuscan masters.
Of humble origin, he rose through the Franciscan Order to become its general in His reign as pope was marked by his promotion of his della Rovere relatives and his aggressive pursuit of Italian politics. He was the first pope to act on the programme of renovation of Rome that had been conceived by Nicholas V, and his projects of urban planning, building and artistic patronage had a more lasting impact on the city than those of any Renaissance pontiff except his nephew Julius II. Term applied to Tuscan 15th- and early 16th-century painted wall panels.
Originally the term denoted panels that were set into the wall panelling at head or shoulder height above the backrest of a piece of furniture. It was later extended to include panel paintings set into the wall and was an integral part of the wainscoting. With few exceptions, spalliere are characterized by their size and shape—larger than cassone panels and proportionally higher, but still two to three times as long as high.
These pictures were installed above a piece of furniture, such as one or more cassoni , a bed or a lettuccio a high-backed bench with a chest below the seat that doubled as a narrow bed. Furthermore, whether cause or result, by the third quarter of the 15th century, paintings were much more highly esteemed in the domestic setting and quality was deemed more desirable, as attested by a higher proportion of panels by leading artists made specifically for domestic settings.
Note the terms they use in the original language as well as the modern English translation.
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Edited by A. Edited by B. Pagnin, — Tuscan Chronicle Account, from the "Storie Pistoresi. Edited by S. Barbi, Edited by ed. Lisini and F. Iacometti, Bologna, , Annotated by Shona Kelly Wray. Chronicle of Marco Battagli of Rimini The chronicler of Rimini, from the northeastern coastal region, wrote that "father fled his son once he became sick, brother avoided brother, wife her husband, and thus the healthy fled from the ill.
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