Working languages:. Native in : English. Send email. More actions PayPal accepted. Feedback from clients and colleagues on Willingness to Work Again No feedback collected. Nicht alle Sitten korrumpiert, nicht alle Spieler verdorben. Und bis zuletzt — in Spanien endete die Transferzeit Freitag, Jetzt helfen keine Regeln, sondern eine Vision Die Nahrungsketten sind heute so klar wie im Biologieunterricht. Cosi fan tutte — so machen es alle: Das Problem ist systemisch.
Am interessantesten ist jedoch, warum ihr das gelingt: Ausgerechnet das erzkapitalistische Amerika gedeiht im Profisport auf real existierendem Sozialismus. In den letzten zehn Jahren gab es acht verschiedene Football-Champions. Man muss die Dinge schon gut machen, um zu gewinnen. Die Option, seine Konkurrenz einfach leer zu kaufen, gibt es nicht. Eine Gegenfrage: Was ist jetzt mit ihnen? Sie sind Monopole, eine Prozession einseitiger Partien, in der man den Sieger schon vorher kennt. Egal — auf ihrer Bank sitzen bessere Spieler, als bei jeder anderen Mannschaft ihrer Liga auf dem Platz stehen.
Ein Teufelskreis. Identifikation kann man in jeder Liga leben. Der Verein kickt in der Regionalliga Bayern. Die Bundesliga funktioniert auch ohne Bayern Ihrer Begeisterung tut es keinen Abbruch, dass sie nicht die schillerndsten Stars sehen. Noch mal der Blick zum American Football. Ihrer Begeisterung tut es keinen Abbruch, dass sie nicht die schillerndsten Stars sehen.
In Amerika scheint es ganz einfach. Ob man die Europaliga in regionale Divisionen aufteilt und in einer K. So denn irgendwann damit begonnen wird. Wie in den letzten Wochen.
Translation - English Not everything about big-time professional soccer is bad. Among the players, there are still good guys doing decent things. This summer, French left-back Lucas Digne jumped into action to help the injured after the terrorist attack in Barcelona. And yet, the past few months have put many fans and bigwigs of European soccer ill-at-ease, with the word "madness" running in an endless loop. The problems aren't new: Some of the transfer fees were already monstrous; the financial backers dubious; the players egotistical.
But just as the world seems to turn on its head at times in this era of globalization and technological revolution, so too has soccer seemed to gone berserk. For starters, the latest round of over-the-top transfer price-tags. Before this year, there had only been one transfer for more than million euros: Pogba, in , for million plus 5 million in possible bonuses from Juventus to Manchester United. But there are others: Kylian Mbappe, whom PSG is only borrowing for the season in accordance with Financial Fair Play Regulations, the Paris club will be wiring million euros to Monaco next summer.
Ousmane Dembele is switching from Dortmund to Barcelona for million plus 43 million in bonuses. And finally, Barca offered to pay Liverpool million for Philippe Coutinho. All this reshuffling was triggered by money from Qatar. And it was supported by players who openly Dembele , covertly Coutinho , or on instruction Mbappe left their previous slots.
The big stars, it seems, no longer bother giving what even fair weather fans appreciate: a modicum of loyalty and predictability, something viewers can identify with. Club soccer, in brief, is making a killing, but at the cost of its moral wellbeing. The result is a crisis. This kind of crises always comes with two answers: To look ahead or peer into the past.
Option No. The other choice — and the only truly reasonable one —is to seek contemporary solutions, because the world, like soccer, has changed, and nostalgia is a remedy that simply won't work. The food chain today is as clear as it was in high school biology class. PSG is helping itself to Barcelona; Barcelona feeds on Dortmund; Dortmund takes what it wants from Gladbach; Gladbach draws from Switzerland, and then Austria, and so on, until only the plankton remain. And that's jut thew way it is. Cosi fan tutte —everyone does it. The problem is, in a word, systemic.
For a solution, professional soccer needs more than just individual rules. It needs a vision. And for that, it's worth looking across the ocean to The country may be a mess politically, but when it comes to pro sports, it definitely has a thing or two to teach the Old World. With just 16 game days, plus a couple of playoff games per team — compared to between 34 and 38 game days for European soccer teams — the NFL nevertheless manages to make about as much money as Europe's four top leagues England, Germany, Spain and Italy combined.
Even more interesting is why the NFL has succeeded so spectacularly: socialism. That's right, professional sports in capitalist America, of all places, thrives on real socialism. Salary caps, financial compensation, and transfer preferential rights for weak teams level the playing field. These are handicaps one could only dream about in Europe's top soccer league. As a result, the NFL has had eight different championship teams in the past 10 years. In the major U.
It requires strategy, executive planning, training and talent development. Salary caps should also be considered in soccer. But due to the reservations of the European Union, and different tax rates and legal practices, this appears to be realistic only if taken one step further: Subjecting all the clubs to the regulations of a common league. Hence, a Euro League, the biggest bogeyman of all. Hardcore soccer fans are outraged by the very mention of such an idea. They feel about a Europe-wide league the way they do about child abuse and illegal arms deals.
But what exactly makes it so bad? Because in reality, the scenario is actually quite fascinating: The best soccer players up against each other week after week, and not just five times a year, when the Champions League quarterfinals finals kick off. The obvious and reasonable question people ask is what would happen to the national leagues. But here's a counter question: What about them? They are monopolies, a procession of unilateral parties in which everyone already knows the winners beforehand.
In Germany, Bayern has won half of the past 10 championships. In Italy, Juventus snatched the last seven. In France, PSG has clinched the top trophy in four of the last five years. There's also the fact that these teams, when playing in their respective countries, put in half the effort they do when vying for the Champions League. And they don't have to, because their benches are filled with players who are better than the guys their opponents put on the field. So why doesn't Bayern, for example, send some of that excess talent to Mainz?
Because then it wouldn't be as competitive internationally. It's a vicious circle. The Euro league idea is a bitter pill for fans of tradition and custom. But it's also an opportunity to return to exhilarating competition. Again, it's worth taking a look at the NFL. The bulk of NFL games are played on Sundays, freeing Saturdays up for competition between university teams, which are also wildly popular, even without the superstars.
People love the amateur league. Some fans even prefer it. More money could be generated with fewer games. A European league, following a similar model, could actually have positive side effects. More money could be generated with fewer games, and the top teams wouldn't be so overloaded with star players. That, in turn, would benefit all those talented but embittered players riding the bench. A Europe-wide league with a fair distribution model could also bring respected but — because of their small domestic markets — globally unimportant clubs bring back into play. Think Celtic, Benfica, Ajax, etc.
Lastly, a united European soccer league would create possibilities for stricter and universal transfer controls. All teams would have to follow the same calendar, meaning the "window of opportunity" for buying up talent would close before the start of the season. The irksome uncertainty of the preseason would cease to exist. Other rules, like the prohibition on speaking to players without the knowledge of the club, could be enforced. What's so hard about all that?
The U. A Euro league, in other words, wouldn't be the end of soccer. It would be a chance for a fresh start, and one that would actually protect many traditions.
Everything should be up for discussion. It's easy to demonize modern soccer. But unless we actually do something about it, nothing will change — and the obscene signings and other unsavory aspects of the current crisis will only multiply in the future. Es war Montag, der November Alle sechs trugen schwere Sporttaschen. Dennoch fielen sie keinem Wachposten auf. Doch in ihren Sporttaschen hatten sie Kalaschnikows und Messer. Die sechs hatten sich gut vorbereitet. Sie wussten offenbar, dass immer montags besonders viele Touristen hierherkommen — am Wochenende war An- und Abreise der Pauschalreise-Veranstalter aus Westeuropa und Fernost.
Viele Touristen standen auf einmal im Kreuzfeuer. Es war ein unbeschreibliches Durcheinander. In dem vollkommenen Chaos war das nicht mehr auseinanderzuhalten. Ihr Anschlag beruhte darauf, dass sie ihr Leben opferten. November begann die moderne fundamental-muslimische Gewalt. In dieser Tat verbanden sich mehrere Elemente, die seither das Leben in fast der ganzen Welt unsicherer machen.
Bei manchen Veranstaltern wurden bis zu 80 Prozent der Buchungen storniert. Translation - English The murderers arrived in a bus on a Monday in November: six young men, groomed and freshly shaven, wearing police uniforms. All six were carrying heavy sports bags. Still, they slipped past through three security checkpoints on the bus. Then, on foot, the group made its way to the Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut. No one asked to see their identification; the guards just assumed they were security personnel.
But in those sports bags were Kalashnikovs and knives. On that November day, exactly 20 years ago, fundamentalist-Islamic violence — as we know it today — began. The six had prepared well, and knew that many tourists came to the temple on Monday mornings. Tourist groups from around the world were in the main gallery shortly after 9 a.
It was around a. When police and soldiers from the security checkpoints in front of the temple returned fire, the terrorists withdrew into the temple to continue the onslaught, partly with daggers and machetes. Many tourists were suddenly caught in the crossfire. Members of a local militia came down from the mountain and fired into the valley.
It was indescribable chaos. In the end, 36 Swiss citizens, ten Japanese, six Brits, four Germans, two Colombians, and four locals were killed. And, of course, the six terrorists, ultimately shot by security forces as they half-heartedly attempted to flee the scene of the crime. They did not prepare for any exit route. Sacrificing their lives was part of their plan. In the Luxor attack, on Nov. Islamic terrorism has metastasized in most countries over the past two decades — in New York, Bali, Barcelona, London, Brussels, Berlin and elsewhere. Neither religiously-motivated terror nor Islamic perpetrators were new in On the contrary, this history reaches back at least to the Middle Ages.
In , terrorists had targeted the World Trade Center in New York, murdering six; and a series of bombings in Paris in killed eight. In Luxor, however, these three elements were brought together for the first time on an unprecedented scale: The perpetrators were radical Muslims, who willingly sacrificed their lives in order to generate sheer panic by killing Europeans and citizens of other industrial states. Premeditated savagery became a deliberate means. After the attack, rattled vacationers fled Egypt in droves. But time and again, the travel industry, which is essential to the Egyptian economy, recovered.
Even further Islamist attacks on tourists, such as in Sharm el Sheikh or Dahab or, more recently, in Hurghada , have not stopped the flow of travelers. The risk has just been factored into the price. The other costs may be harder to quantify. Curvy Frauen laufen hier durch Gras. Curvy Frauen drehen hier Runden. Endlich kein Kampf mehr gegen sich selbst. Im Namen der Sexyness. Wer ist das beste Lustobjekt? Eine junge Frau sagt, sie wolle ihre Mutter stolz machen. Die machen einen ganz anderen Shape.
Es ist die erste Frage an die schwarze Frau. Sie sagt, sie komme aus dem Senegal, woraufhin die Jury entgegnet, dass sie selbstbewusst sein solle. Denn sie sei curvy. Bitte zieh' dir etwas an, Thorsten! Sie wurde immer Thorsten genannt. Aber keiner fragt sie aus welchem Land sie kommt. Sie wird nicht weinen. Mobbing kennt sie. Das ist ihr Kampf. Sie solle doch einfach ein Kleid tragen! Hatte sie das nicht an? Es muss anders aussehen, anders als ein Netzkleid, also an ihr.
Sie war im vergangenen Jahr schon dabei. Nun solle dieser aber fester sein. Denn sie trainiert und trainiert. Doch dazu kommt sie nicht mehr - sie ist raus. Ina nickt. Sie muss da durch. Unter ihrem Namen steht: Hat kenianische Wurzeln. Translation - English Of course, it begins on a racecourse. Curvy women run around until they obtain a golden ticket, just like in Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. Giving up isn't an option. One of them will become the new "Curvy Supermodel", a leader of the Body Positive movement, a fresh face of the Body Revolution. At least, that's what's promised by the voiceover on the television show Curvy Supermodel, which is broadcast on Germany's RTL 2.
Body positivity is about accepting your body as it is, whether you're skinny, fat, or something in between, the voiceover says. It's apparently something these women have struggled with their entire lives. And "curvy" as used in the English language means more than curvy here. It also means sexy. And that's very important. A curvy woman must be sexy. No surprise there, of course, since women always have to look sexy on TV anyway.
What's more, they must do what women always do on TV — fight other women. In the name of sexiness. Who is the most alluring object of sexual desire? Now it includes those bigger than size Jury member Angelina Kirsch, a "curvy model", stresses that, on this show, there's more of everything: "More curves, more emotion, more passion. She actually wants to hide them a little, but they simply keep attracting attention.
Following Kirsch's advice, the "Curvy Supermodel" contender puts on a minimizer bra, thereby reducing her breasts by two sizes. She then moves her body before the jury. A model agent speaks to a contestant: "I'm guessing you're from Africa. Which country are you from? She responds that she's from Senegal, to which the jury says that she should be confident. Because she's curvy.
Curvy, the viewer now learns, isn't just something you are. It is, first and foremost, something you're daring to be. The next young woman explains that she was bullied at school. She is 17 years old and white. But no one asks her which country she comes from. South Africa? It could be anywhere but it doesn't interest anyone. She is wearing a fishnet dress over a black bodysuit. As she turns around, the model expert and jury member Jana Ina is shocked by her bottom. She won't cry. She knows what bullying is. The pain sits deep inside her, but she takes it.
The rest of the jury is more forgiving now. She should just wear a dress, they advise. The student could be forgiven for feeling confused after such advice. Lejos de Ghana Kindle Edition. Iuliana Dumitru Translator. Gana naj gre Paperback. Le ravissement des innocents Kindle Edition. Ghana Must Go ebook. La bellezza delle cose fragili Kindle Edition.
Diese Dinge geschehen nicht einfach so: Roman Fischer Taschenbibliothek La bellezza delle cose fragili ebook. Add a new edition. Welcome back. Just a moment while we sign you in to your Goodreads account. As I have told you, the monstrance actually represents the sun and the moon. So the man who is not properly educated in this respect, prays to the monstrance itself, although it is only an external symbol. People tend very easily to worship the external. And so it is actually the truth that in the course of the centuries, Christianity has been very pagan.
By contrast, Judaism has always reacted against paganism. The Christians of the West who came from Greece, Rome, and Central Germany, they were really quite unable to reproduce the old [herbal] medicine because they could no longer see the spiritual beings who live in the herbs.
It was impossible for them to look at the herbs and perceive the spiritual within them. But all herbs have the spiritual in them. The Jews from the East, Persia, and so on, thought they could see only their Jehovah in the herbs. If you look at the evolution of medicine during the Middle Ages, the Jews played a tremendously large role. The Arabs are best at the development of other sciences, and the Jews have played a big role in the development of medicine.
And when the Arabs have turned their attention to medicine, they have done this with the help of the Jews. But now medicine has [deteriorated to] become what it is today. And if you think about medicine today, you can see that with few exceptions everything traces back to only a few principles!
We no longer perceive the individual nature spirits , but we only have the remedies coming from Judaism. It would seem natural if the number of Jewish doctors in the different European countries was proportional to [the Jewish] the population. I am not saying — don't misunderstand me! I would never propose that. But in the natural course of things, one would expect to find Jewish doctors in proportion to the Jewish population. But this is not the case. Most countries have a far greater number of Jews who become doctors [than is proportional]. This traces back to the Middle Ages. The Jews are drawn to medicine because it is in suited to their abstract thinking.
Abstract, Jehovistic medicine fits their way of thinking. Only Anthroposophy, which recognizes the diverse nature spirits, perceives the forces of nature in the different herbs and minerals, so [only Anthroposophy] can establish such knowledge on a firm foundation. So the Jews have worshiped the one Jehovah and they did not stray into the multiplicity of spirits.
Now it is of course true that the Jews have always been different from other peoples, and differences of this kind often cause dislike and antipathy — and indeed they evoked resentment and antipathy. Today we can generally recognize that [the Jews] have striven hard not to disperse — their culture does not allow this. Instead, for centuries they have tried to hold together. But in the future this must change and be replaced by true spiritual knowledge. Therefore, I have found it wrong from the outset that the Jews, who no longer need to do so, have founded the Zionist movement.
You see, a very prominent Zionist whom I knew once explained his ideals to me, to go to Palestine and establish a Jewish kingdom there. He very strongly supported the idea of this Jewish kingdom, and he still does today — he now holds a very prestigious position in Palestine. I said [to him]: Such a thing is no longer timely, because today for the first time every person can, without distinction of race or class, form ties with all others.biesgaladcoacu.ml/4764-horoscop-capricorn.php
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That would separate a part of humanity from the rest! For this reason alone, we should have no such movement today. Strictly speaking, that would be a terribly backward move. But of course such people [i. Instead, but they want things to occur on the basis of race. This conversation I have mentioned took place before the Great War of to , and you see that war came about precisely because instead of pursuing great universal human principles, people wanted to isolate themselves, to develop their own racial forces!
Many Jewish habits oppose this today — and above all their hatred of other people. And that is precisely what must be overcome. These things will not be overcome if everything stays as it has been. Jews get offended if you say [things like], "You are not good sculptors. Truly, it is easy to imagine: If I make a picture, or even just describe a picture as we often do in spiritual science, others can store it in memory, learn from it, and comprehend it. But if I do not make a picture, then I only display myself, and I have created nothing outside of myself.
And that's how things are with Judaism. Everything for Jews is personal. People need to learn to see the spiritual in others. Jews today are still dominated by their racial nature. They marry only among themselves.
Verteidigung der Leidenschaft
And this is what we need to know to answer the question whether the Jews have fulfilled their mission. Judaism has fulfilled its mission because it kept itself separate as a people and this produced a certain form of monotheism. Today, however, we need [something different]: spiritual wisdom. So the mission of the Jews has been completed. And therefore the Jewish mission is no longer needed in human development, so the Jews should raise themselves by blending with other peoples in other lands.
Question: Why was it the fate of this people [the Jews] to go into exile? Now, imagine that the Roman conquest of Palestine had been complete; suppose the Romans killed everyone they wanted to be rid of and drove away the rest. Well, the Romans would have conquered Palestine and many Jews would have been put to death; [while] others — as is true today in every country — would have been expelled and would have continued their lives outside of Palestine.
But the Jews did not have the intention nor the urge to intermarry with other peoples; instead, wherever they went, even if there were only a few of them, they lived exclusively among themselves. They dispersed far and wide; and because they lived wholly among themselves, marrying only among themselves, the Jews were always seen as a foreign element. It was this innate urge in the Jews that gave rise to the idea of their exile. And today posterity is surprised that the Jews were dispersed, were forced to live as strangers.
By their basic nature, Jews cling together. In this regard we must say that because [some groups of] human beings cling together, attention has been attracted to things that would not, otherwise, have been noticed.
It is so sad, heartbreaking, to read how the Jews lived in the ghettoes in Medieval times, in parts of the towns where only they were allowed to dwell. They were not allowed to go into the other parts of the towns; the gates of the ghettoes were locked, and so on. But things like this are discussed because it was seen that the Jews in the ghettoes clung together strongly, living exclusively among themselves. The Jews stayed in their ghettoes, clinging together, and people  knew that the Jews were not allowed to move out of their quarters. But just think. They, too, have suffered greatly.
The time has come when such things must be revealed in the light of reality. The inner qualities of the Jews themselves have shaped the story of Jewish exile; the Jews are a tenacious people, they have kept to one another in foreign lands; and this is why, later, the exile of the Jews has been so noticeable and is discussed today. On the other hand, the natural consequence is that the Jews are considered different from other peoples and they are accused of all sorts of things for reasons that are unclear. The reason why such things are said is because the Jews are differentiated from the others; but the Jews themselves have done a great deal to cause this state of affairs.
In considering these things today, it is essential to stress universal human realities, not the principle of race. Question : What was the significance in world history of the seventy souls among the ancient Israelites? Steiner : Well, gentlemen, here is the thing: Peoples of various characters have lived on the Earth since ancient times. The Spiritual is a living reality in the phenomena of nature; the Spiritual is also a living reality in the peoples of the Earth.
In every people there is a guiding folk spirit. When one speaks today of the French people and the others, what does modern materialistic thinking tell us? It suggests an accumulation of some 42 millions of human beings in the West of Europe — a pure abstraction; the traits and characteristics of the people in question are a very secondary consideration.
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Just as the seed lives in the plant, so something seed-like exists, living in the spirit of a people, where it unfolds. A spirit, a real being, lives and works in the whole people. Each folk spirit belonged to a particular people. But if we take the Jewish people, then, in that corner of the Earth, called Syria, where the Jews dwelled, the influences and intentions of all the folk spirits concentrated upon this one people.
Let me try to make this clear by a simple analogy. Each of you has a particular sphere of activity. So it was in the case of these folk spirits. In that case you will not remain in your own family circle but you will hold a meeting with other workers and discuss among yourselves what proposal should be acted upon by all of you, acting as a whole. And so we may say: In the peoples aside from the Jews, each folk spirit worked in his own sphere, as it were; but what the folk spirits achieved through the Jewish people came out of the united a spiritual work [of many folk spirits].
This influence worked with different degrees of strength among the members of the Jewish people. The Bible gives an indication of this when it speaks of seventy folk spirits entering into the people of Israel. This powerful influence made the Jews, in a certain respect, a cosmopolitan people and it accounts for the tenacity that has remained characteristic of them. No matter where they might be, they were always able to gather together and preserve Judaism, because they had everything within them.
It is very remarkable how Judaism has everything within it. Among such groups, you will find in the very words of their rites, elements that come from all kinds of peoples: Egyptian rites and words, Assyrian and Babylonian words and signs — but especially elements from the Jewish Kabbala and so forth. The same is true of the Hebrew language, which is very rich, in both spiritual and physical content.
Every Hebrew word is always full of meaning. Peculiarly, the Jews wrote only the consonants [in words]; later, the vowels were indicated by means of signs. The great tenacity that characterized Judaism showed how the several folk spirits worked upon this one people. When you see Jews in different countries, you will need very keen perception to distinguish those Jews who actually mingle with the other peoples. You know, of course, that the most important statesman of the nineteenth century was a Jew. In a sentence spoken by a Jew, an experienced person will immediately recognize the typical Jewish style  — if, that is, there is no imitation, which is common practice today.
But the Jews seldom imitate. It is noticeable that a Jew invariably takes his start from something that is fixed or recorded inwardly as a concept. To this day, when a Jew says something, he assumes his statement is unquestionably valid.
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He relies on his own individual judgment. This is really very interesting! Suppose a number of people — three, four, five — are together; one is a Jew, the other four are not. The men are representatives of various communities. I am not telling you about an imaginary situation but one which I have actually experienced In this gathering, the people have diverse views.
Now these five men, of whom only the fifth is a Jew, begin to speak. The first one says: "It is very hard to get all these people to agree; the only thing to do is to persuade a minority and then work upon the majority so that a compromise can be reached. The second man says: "Yes, but I have lived among the people who make up the minority and I know how difficult it is to persuade them!
Concept of compromise: compromise consists in reaching a balance among different opinions so that some people give way. That is why the Jew always thinks he can develop everything out of a concept. As long as the Jews keep tenaciously among themselves, things will naturally remain as they are. But after the Jews have merged into other peoples, they will lose the habit of saying: "concept of compromise!
All this is connected with the way in which the folk spirits have worked upon them. Dollinger : What is the significance of the Sephiroth tree to the Jewish people? This lecture, sometimes referred to as "The Essence of Judaism", has not been as thoroughly hidden from English-speaking audiences as "Color and the Human Races".
You can compare the translation there to mine. I believe you will find that they are substantially in agreement. What is the effect of Steiner's teachings about Jews? Do those teachings have any practical impact in the world today? It is hard to say for sure. But let's try a thought experiment. Imagine yourself a young Jew. Further, imagine that you attend a Waldorf school in which the teachers accept Steiner's teachings on all matters. Here is a message I posted at the Waldorf Critics website.
We find them abhorrent. This book, published by the Rudolf Steiner Press in The lecture about Jews and Judaism,. Here are excerpts that fill in some of the history and background of anti-Semitism. I downloaded these materials on July 25, Just as racism often involves racial hatred but is, in fact, a larger phenomenon that may often exist without the emotional component of hatred, anti-Semitism generally includes hatred of Jews but it is broader than that and may exist without any overt hatred being expressed.
Perhaps the best concise definition is prejudice against Jews or making unjust, generalized judgments about Jews. In the following excerpts, you may note descriptions of several anti-Semitic beliefs that find echoes in the lectures and writings of Rudolf Steiner.
Steiner and his followers have generally stopped short of hatred of Jews, but there can be little doubt that Steiner's teachings include clear strains of anti-Semitism. The term anti-Semitism was coined in by the German agitator Wilhelm Marr to designate the anti-Jewish campaigns underway in central Europe at that time. Although this term now has wide currency, it is a misnomer, since it implies a discrimination against all Semites. Arabs and other peoples are also Semites, and yet they are not the targets of anti-Semitism as it is usually understood Anti-Semitism has existed to some degree wherever Jews have settled outside of Palestine.
In the ancient Greco-Roman world, religious differences were the primary basis for anti-Semitism Although Jesus of Nazareth and his disciples were practicing Jews and Christianity is rooted in the Jewish teaching of monotheism, Judaism and Christianity became rivals soon after Jesus was crucified by Pontius Pilate [the Roman governor of Judaea] Christianity was intent on replacing Judaism by making its own particular message universal.
As Christianity spread in the first centuries ce, most Jews continued to reject that religion. As a consequence, by the 4th century, Christians tended to regard Jews as an alien people who, because of their repudiation of Christ and his church, were condemned to perpetual migration a belief best illustrated in the legend of the Wandering Jew. When the Christian church became dominant in the Roman Empire, its leaders inspired many laws by Roman emperors designed to segregate Jews and curtail their freedoms when they appeared to threaten Christian religious domination.
As a consequence, Jews were increasingly forced to the margins of European society. The word antisemitism means prejudice against or hatred of Jews In , German journalist Wilhelm Marr originated the term antisemitism, denoting the hatred of Jews, and also hatred of various liberal, cosmopolitan, and international political trends of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries often associated with Jews. The trends under attack included equal civil rights, constitutional democracy, free trade, socialism, finance capitalism, and pacifism.
Among the most common manifestations of antisemitism throughout history were pogroms, violent riots launched against Jews and frequently encouraged by government authorities. Pogroms were often incited by blood libels — false rumors that Jews used the blood of Christian children for ritual purposes. In the last third of the nineteenth century, antisemitic political parties were formed in Germany, France, and Austria. Publications such as the Protocols of the Elders of Zion generated or provided support for fraudulent theories of an international Jewish conspiracy.
A potent component of political antisemitism was nationalism, whose adherents often falsely denounced Jews as disloyal citizens. The Nazi party, founded in and led by Adolf Hitler, gave political expression to theories of racism. In part, the Nazi party gained popularity by disseminating anti-Jewish propaganda With the Nazi rise to power in , the party ordered anti-Jewish economic boycotts, staged book burnings, and enacted discriminatory anti-Jewish legislation. Hence anti-Semite , one who is hostile or opposed to Jews; anti-Semitic. Was Steiner opposed to Jews? Well, he opposed the continued existence of the Jewish people and he opposed the establishment of a Jewish homeland.
He opposed what he called Jewish thinking as well as the results he attributed to such thinking. He disparaged the Jewish religion "the Moon religion" and its God, as well as dismissing at least some portions of Jewish culture and art. This is a fairly wide swath of opposition. Did Steiner oppose Jews? He did, in almost every way conceivable. Of course, in the view of his followers, he did this for Jews' own good.
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